Each year, I like to capture the top “clicked on” articles. Knowing this will help me determine what topics readers feel are most engaging. The data will help me as technical editor round up articles for 2017 that will be equally compelling. Some of these topics include EMC basics, product design for compliance, EMC standards updates, medical EMC, vehicular EMC, and military EMC.
I’d like to now reveal the top ten most popular technical articles published in Interference Technology since 2005. Please enjoy them! Starting with #1…
#1 – Electromagnetic Interference Sources and Their Most Significant Effects – Anthony DiBiase, Spec-Hardened Systems
As the density of the electromagnetic environment continues to increase, the concern about its effects from sources producing EMI also increases. Advances in technology and the number of products produced are having a significant effect on the efforts aimed at maintaining the required operation and interoperability of products and systems used in our society. These events had added challenges for those who are responsible for keeping pace with the effort needed to maintain the required level of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in these products and systems.
#2 – The HF Current Probe: Theory and Application – Kenneth Wyatt, Wyatt Technical Services LLC
This article describes one of the most valuable tools in the EMC engineer’s “bag of tricks” – the high-frequency current probe. Current probes are invaluable for measuring high-frequency common-mode (or “antenna”) currents flowing on wires or cables. Experience has proven that poorly terminated (bonded or filtered) cables are the no. 1 cause for radiated emissions failures at a test facility. By measuring the common-mode (CM) currents on these cables it’s possible to troubleshoot and apply fixes to a product right there in your development lab. This will save you tons of time trying to apply fixes at the test facility while the clock is ticking away your test time. I’ll also show you several ways to create do-it-yourself (DIY) probes that are quick to make and very useful in a pinch.
#3 – New EMC Requirements for Commercial Avionics: RTCA/DO-160G – Eric Bergstrom, Environ Laboratories
RTCA/DO-160G, Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment, prepared by RTCA Special Committee 135, was issued on December 8, 2010, superseding the previous version, DO-160F . DO-160G covers standard procedures and environmental test criteria for testing airborne electrical and electronic equipment (avionics). The tests specified in DO-160G are typically performed to meet Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) or other international regulations covering electrical or electronic equipment that is installed on commercial aircraft.
#4 – Radiated Emission Measurements at 1/3/5/10/30 Meters – Daniel Hoolihan, Hoolihan EMC Consulting
Radiated emission measurements are unique in that they must always state the horizontal distance from the Equipment-under-Test (EUT) to the receiving antenna. This horizontal distance, which can be 1, 3, 5, 10, or 30 meters, and the standardized limits associated with those distances, are the subject of this article.
#5 – Designing Electronic Systems for EMC: Grounding for the Control of EMI – William Duff, SEMTAS
In order to avoid creating EMI problems, it is essential to recognize that an effective grounding system, like any other portion of an equipment or system, must be carefully designed and implemented. Grounding is a system problem and in order for a grounding arrangement to perform well it must be well conceived and accurately designed and implemented. The grounding configurations must be weighed with regard to dimensions and frequency, just like any functional circuit.
#6 – Rise Time vs. Bandwidth and Applications – Mekonen Buzuayene, Anritsu Corporation
In measurement instruments such as oscilloscopes and spectrum analyzers, the maximum rise time (tr) that can be measured with reasonable amplitude accuracy is directly related to the instrument’s -3-dB bandwidth (B). This article explains the math.
#7 – The International Medical Device EMC Standard—IEC 60601-1-2 – Dan Hoolihan, Hoolihan EMC Consulting
The most well-known and used EMC Standard for Electrical Medical Devices is IEC 60601-1-2 (“-2”) which is entitled “Medical Electrical Equipment – Part 1-2: General Requirements for Basic Safety and Essential Performance – Collateral Standard: Electromagnetic Compatibility – Requirements and Tests.” The standard was most recently released as the Third Edition in March of 2007. The Standard is currently under review by Maintenance Team 23 of Subcommittee 62A (Common Aspects of Electrical Equipment Used in Medical Practice), which is part of the International Electrotechnical Committee – Technical Committee 62 (Electrical Equipment in Medical Practice).
This article discusses some of the changes from Edition 2 to Edition 3, reviews key-requirements of the “-2” standard, and discusses possible future directions for the standard. It is an “overview” type of article since the actual standard is too long and detailed to review in depth. Editor’s Note: version 4 of this standard was released in 2016. For details, download our 2017 Europe EMC Guide
#8 – Electromagnetic Interference in the Data Center: To Shield Or Not To Shield – Jordi Ferri, Shielding, Power & Cooling Division Manager, Advanced Shielding Technologies Europe S.L. (AST)
When designing a data center, many things need to be taken in account. One of them is availability and downtime depending on desired “Tier” configuration. For Tier III and Tier IV data centers, apart from redundancy of the elements, there are potential threats and design rules that need to be considered to avoid future unexpected incidents and assure up-time of the systems hosted inside.
#9 – New EU Requirements and Test Methods for 2.4 GHz ISM Data Transmission Equipment – David Zhang, Nima Molaei, Leslie Bai
New European Union Directive requirements have been introduced for 2.4GHz ISM Data Transmission Equipment, which will be in effect starting January 1, 2015. This article presents an overview of the regulatory compliance requirements, and provides a detailed analysis on the differences between the current standard ETSI EN 300 328 V1.7.1 (2006) and the new standard ETSI EN 300 328 V1.8.1 (2012). Also included is an introduction to the new required test methods, as well as some of the unique test setups.
#10 – Assembling A Low Cost EMI Troubleshooting Kit – Part 1 (Radiated Emissions) – Kenneth Wyatt, Wyatt Technical Services LLC
Those of us who are either in-house or independent EMC consultants can benefit greatly by assembling our own EMI troubleshooting kit. I’ve depended on my own kit for several years and it has proven not only valuable, but depicts a sense of professionalism in dealing with your own product development engineers, their managers, or your clients, as the case may be.
Want To Write For Interference Technology?
Interference Technology has always had great technical content for the EMC professional and my vision is to continue that, as well as publish basic information on product design and pre-compliance measurement techniques for those product designers that may not have a formal education in electromagnetic compatibility. If you’re interested in contributing technical articles, check out the Contribute link at the bottom of our web site and feel free to drop me an email with your proposal at [email protected].