We now have FCC SAR test procedures for 5-GHz WLAN David A. Case, Cisco Systems, Inc. Richland, OH The engineers involved with certifying 802.11-based products, specifically portable devices, are aware of the headaches that Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) testing can cause. Until recently there was not a clear test procedure for qualifying such devices for Federal … [Read more...]
Is Your Surge Protection Strategy Adequate for Dealing with Extreme Environments?
Relevant data and basic calculations can determine the level of lightning protection needed for a particular facility. Bryan Cole Technology Research Council Nichols, NY, USA Jim Tiesi Emerson Network Power Surge Protection Binghamton, NY, USA High-reliability systems require system up-times that approach reliability requirements of 99.9999 percent. Putting this requirement … [Read more...]
An Overview of C95.1-2005 – IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz
The recommendations of C95.1-2005 protect against established adverse health effects in human beings. Daniel D. Hoolihan Hoolihan EMC Consulting Lindstrom, MN INTRODUCTION A new edition of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard C95.1 was released in early 2006 and has been available for about a year. The new standard is a revision of the 1999 … [Read more...]
Simulation of In-vehicle Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields Due to On-board Transmitters
Numerical models can provide data from an enormous number of points and for a number of human simulants. Alastair R. Ruddle, Ph.D. MIRA Limited, Nuneaton, UK On-board transmitters are already commonly encountered in the vehicle environment: typical examples include mobile telephones, Bluetooth systems, and communications equipment used by the emergency services and armed … [Read more...]
Product Environmental Regulatory Compliance: The Current Status Worldwide
The drive to protect the environment and to conserve natural resources has brought about a proliferation of regulations. Tony Dibiase Spec-Hardened Systems, Rochester, NY, USA INTRODUCTION As the clamor for better and newer electronic products continues worldwide, there is increased concern over landfills accepting growing “mountains” of discarded electronic products. … [Read more...]
Ensuring Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
The IEC coordinates a worldwide system for testing electrical equipment. International Electrotechnical Commission Geneva, Switzerland How does a hospital manager know that equipment such as a CAT scanner, when operating, will not affect nearby electromagnetic systems in the building, such as an X-ray machine, thereby potentially putting patients at risk? Since the early … [Read more...]
Test Beyond the Specs: Why Test Higher in Frequency and Field Strength?
IEC 61000-4-3: 2006's frequency escalation Jason Smith and Pat Malloy AR RF/Microwave Instrumentation, Souderton, PA, USA An increasing number of new and proposed EMC standards are pushing the upper frequency test limits higher into the microwave spectrum. The latest EMC standard released, IEC 61000-4-3: 2006, is no exception. The upper frequency test limit has been increased … [Read more...]
Don’t Settle for Being Just an E3 Engineer—Become an E3 Advocate!
INTRODUCTION It is often the accepted practice for the E3 engineer on a program simply to provide his technical expertise on meeting EMI, EMC, EMP and other E3 requirements and to let others take the recommendations from there. Once the analysis and recommendations are complete, the decisions on how to implement the design are up to the platform design team. The truth be … [Read more...]
Towards an EMC Technology Roadmap
A technology roadmap is a tool for attaining the optimum development within a sector of technology. Marcel van Doorn Philips Electromagnetics & Cooling Competence Center, Eindhoven, the Netherlands INTRODUCTION This article expands earlier work on the concept of a technology roadmap for EMC technology.1 Just as a traditional terrestrial map helps insure that travelers … [Read more...]
An Emission Measurement System for the Twenty-First Century Based on Time-Domain Measuring Methods
More information and reduced measurement time can significantly improve the quality of emissions testing. Stephan Braun and Peter Russer Institute for High Frequency Engineering, Munich University of Technology, Munich, Germany For some time, measurements of electromagnetic interference have been carried out by super-heterodyne receivers operating in the frequency domain. … [Read more...]